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Chapare: Everything you need to know about the rare Bolivian virus of the arenavirus family

Just as COVID-19 belongs to the Coronaviridae family, Chaparevirus belongs to the Arenavirus family.

Fear of the chapare virus spreading from rodents. Image courtesy of Joanna Servaes / Wikimedia Commons

Since then COVID-19 (new coronavirus infection) (# If there is no character limit, add parentheses when it first appears Raising its ugly head, the world has begun to become more aware of potentially deadly viruses that can be transmitted from person to person, despite having a zoonotic disease or animal origin. The latest virus to join these ranks is the Bolivian Chapare virus, which the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently announced could spread through human-to-human contact. Here’s everything you need to know about this virus and the viral hemorrhagic fever it causes.

What is the Chapare virus?

The Chapare virus belongs to the Arenaviridae family of viruses. COVID-19 (new coronavirus infection) (# If there is no character limit, add parentheses when it first appears It belongs to the Coronaviridae family. Arenaviruses usually infect humans indirectly through direct contact with infected rodents or through urine, feces, or contact with infected rodents. Arenaviruses are divided into two groups, the New World or Takaribe Complex and the Old World or Lassa Complex, depending on the location of their origin.

Since Chapare originated in Bolivia, it belongs to the New World complex. Another arenavirus from Bolivia, which can also infect humans, is Bolivian hemorrhagic, which causes hemorrhagic fever in Bolivia. Chapare virus causes Chapare hemorrhagic fever (CHHF).

How many times has the chapare occurred so far?

The CDC reports that the Chapare virus outbreak has only been recorded twice. The first outbreak occurred in 2003 in Chapare, Bolivia, and is therefore the virus nomenclature, killing one patient. The second outbreak occurred in 2019 in Caranavi, Bolivia, with 5 confirmed cases reported and 3 deaths. The 2019 outbreak, which claimed the lives of three health care workers, sounded a recent warning about the Chapare virus.

How does the Chapare virus infect?

According to the CDC, the exact type of rodent that causes or carries the chapare virus is still unknown, but how this particular virus spreads can be inferred by studying similar arenaviruses. The main mode of infection is through direct or indirect contact with the saliva, urine, or feces of the infected rodent. Therefore, this infection can be caused by scratches, bites, inhalation, or ingestion of contaminated food or water if accidentally aerosolized.

The CDC also reports that an infected person can infect others through contact with body fluids or during procedures such as intubation in a medical setting where the virus is aerosolized. .. The CDC believes this may have been the way Bolivian health care workers were infected in 2019. Further investigation is needed to see exactly how this virus is transmitted.

What are the symptoms of the Chapare virus?

According to the CDC, the symptoms of the chapare virus are similar to other South American hemorrhagic fever, such as BHF. It should be noted that there is still a lack of information on the initial symptoms and progression of the disease, as there are so few cases of human CHHF to date. The incubation period of the chapare virus is thought to be 4 to 21 days. That is, symptoms usually begin to appear 4 to 21 days after exposure. Below are some of the symptoms observed in some documented cases of CHHF (not in order of progression).

  • heat
  • headache
  • Joint and muscle pain
  • Pain in the back of the eyes
  • Stomach pain
  • vomiting
  • diarrhea
  • Gingival bleeding
  • Skin rash
  • Irritable bowel

How is the Chapare virus diagnosed?

Like most other viruses, Chapare virus is found in human serum, blood, semen, urine, and respiratory secretions. According to both the CDC and recently published studies Travel medicine and infectious diseasesThe Chapare virus can be detected in samples using the real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) developed after the outbreak in 2003 through genomic analysis of the virus.

Can the Chapare virus be treated?

Currently, there is no cure available for CHHF. The CDC recommends supportive care, including hydration, sedation, analgesia, fever management, and shock management, including fluid and blood transfusions as needed. Keep in mind that the number of cases of CHHF so far is so small that effective treatment, risk factor assessment, and case fatality rate are still unknown. However, it is important that identified patients be carefully cared for, as the virus can be transmitted from person to person.

How to prevent Chapare virus and CHHF?

At present, there are no cases of Chapare virus or CHHF outside Bolivia, so countries like India may not yet need to take precautions against this particular virus. However, rodents are known to carry many diseases and are found all over the world. Therefore, it is advisable to properly manage rodents, avoid the spread of feces and rodents, and take precautions against contaminated food and water. Adhering to hand hygiene and respiratory hygiene helps prevent CHHF and other infections, especially around sick people and crowded areas.

For more information, see the article about virus infections.

The Firstpost Health article was created by myUpchar.com, India’s first and largest resource for validated medical information. At myUpchar, researchers and journalists work with doctors to provide all the information about health.

Chapare: Everything you need to know about the rare Bolivian virus of the arenavirus family

Source link Chapare: Everything you need to know about the rare Bolivian virus of the arenavirus family

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