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What is a monoclonal antibody? Why do you need them and the COVID-19 vaccine?

While Regeneron was still waiting for the FDA’s green light for antibody treatment, the FDA issued an emergency permit for Eli Lilly’s monoclonal antibody.

When President Trump was diagnosed COVID-19 (new coronavirus infection) (# If there is no character limit, add parentheses when it first appears , One of the most advanced experimental therapies What he received was a mixture of monoclonal antibodies.But now the vaccine It may be available soon. So are other treatments needed or worth it? And what exactly is a monoclonal antibody?

Over the past few months, the general public Many treatments Used in battle COVID-19 (new coronavirus infection) (# If there is no character limit, add parentheses when it first appears ..Antiviral agents like Remdesivir inhibits virus replication In human cells. Convalescent plasma From the blood of a donor who recovered from COVID-19 (new coronavirus infection) (# If there is no character limit, add parentheses when it first appears It may contain antibodies that suppress viruses and inflammation.Steroids like Dexamethasone It corrects and reduces dangerous inflammatory damage to the lungs, which can delay respiratory failure.

What is a monoclonal antibody? Why do you need them and the COVID-19 vaccine?

Y-shaped proteins, called antibodies, are essential for attacking and destroying viruses. Dr_Microbe / Getty Images

The FDA has issued the following emergency license Eli Lilly’s monoclonal antibody called Bamuranibimab,and Regeneron is waiting for the FDA’s green light For that antibody treatment. Monoclonal antibodies are particularly promising in treatment because they can neutralize the SARS-CoV-2 virus. COVID-19 (new coronavirus infection) (# If there is no character limit, add parentheses when it first appears , And blocks its ability to infect cells. This may be a life-saving intervention for people who are unable to provoke a strong innate immune response to the virus, that is, people over the age of 65, or those in existing conditions that make them more vulnerable.

I worked at Public Health and Medical Research Institute For decades, he has specialized in the study of viruses and other microorganisms.Even in the case of vaccines COVID-19 (new coronavirus infection) (# If there is no character limit, add parentheses when it first appears When available, we will see the role of monoclonal antibody therapy in controlling pandemics.

Why do we need to care?

Until Most of the population is immune The world of infectious diseases, either due to vaccines or unidentified epidemics through the community, must rely on other weapons in the war with us. COVID-19 (new coronavirus infection) (# If there is no character limit, add parentheses when it first appears Pandemic.

In addition to the treatments mentioned above, monoclonal antibodies can provide another tool for neutralizing the virus if it causes an infection.

These artificial antibodies offer the world the same immunotherapeutic potential as they are used. Convalescent plasma But with more targeted and accurate action. Vaccines ultimately help protect the population, but vaccination is not a momentary event and delivers vaccines to 100% of the population. I also don’t know how effective it is.

The effects of the vaccine are not instantaneous. It takes several weeks for a strong antibody reaction to occur. Temporarily, monoclonal antibodies may help get rid of viruses that are growing in the body.

What is a monoclonal antibody? Why do you need them and the COVID-19 vaccine?

Herd immunity occurs when the majority of the population has acquired immunity to the virus either by vaccination or infection. When this happens, vulnerable people who cannot be vaccinated are protected by “herds”. smodj / iStock / Getty Images Plus

Antibody 101

Antibodies are Y-shaped proteins that are naturally produced by our body’s immune system and target foreign substances or those that are not part of you. These foreign substances are called antigens and are found not only in allergens, bacteria and viruses, but also in other things such as toxins and transplanted organs.

Monoclonal antibody therapy mimics the body’s natural immune response and targets foreign substances that can infect or harm humans, such as viruses.There are also monoclonal antibodies owned by pharmaceutical companies Designed to target cancer cells. Monoclonal antibodies are one of the most potent types of drugs. 2019 7 of the top 10 best-selling drugs It was a monoclonal antibody.

In the case of President Trump, experimental treatment by a pharmaceutical company Regeneron It contained two antibodies.

Usually on spike protein Coronavirus It is perfectly compatible with the ACE2 receptor in human cells, a protein common in lung cells and other organs. When this connection occurs, the virus infects the cell and allows it to multiply inside the cell.However, monoclonal antibodies can delay or stop infection Attaches to viral spike proteins before reaching the ACE2 receptor.. When this happens, the virus becomes harmless because it cannot invade cells and propagate.

How are monoclonal antibodies made?

Monoclonal antibody that neutralizes Coronavirus is Manufacturing and manufacturing are complicated.. They are made inside cells taken from the hamster’s ovaries and must be raised in a huge steel vat. Next, the antibodies produced by these cells need to be extracted and purified.Unfortunately, these monoclonal antibodies, which have been used for years in other diseases, are often Quite expensive.

What is a monoclonal antibody? Why do you need them and the COVID-19 vaccine?

When the antibody (white) binds to the spike protein that covers the surface of the virus, SARS-CoV-2 can no longer infect human cells. JUAN GAERTNER / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY / Getty Images

Regeneron’s two antibodies Targets the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. These are protrusions on the surface of the virus that give it a crown-like appearance and are important for human cell infection.

One of Regeneron’s two antibodies is a replica or clone of an antibody harvested from a person who has recovered from. COVID-19 (new coronavirus infection) (# If there is no character limit, add parentheses when it first appears .. Secondary antibodies have been identified in mice that have been biologically engineered to have the human immune system. When the mouse was injected with spike protein, its human immune system produced antibodies against it. One of the most effective mouse antibodies was then taken and used to form part of this treatment.

Eli Lilly’s monoclonal antibody therapy, bamlanivimabIdentified from a blood sample taken from one of the first U.S. patients to recover from COVID-19 (new coronavirus infection) (# If there is no character limit, add parentheses when it first appears ..

Both companies carry out large-scale manufacturing with a robust and global supply chain for the production of monoclonal antibodies, with many global manufacturing sites expanding their supply.Eli Lilly FDA approved,and Regeneron is still awaiting approval.. Unfortunately, antibody deficiency can occur in the early stages of approval.

Monoclonal antibodies and vaccines

Monoclonal antibodies can complement vaccines by providing rapid protection against infection. Monoclonal antibodies provide instant protection for weeks to months when they are given to an individual. Vaccines have to challenge the immune system, so it takes time to provide protection. However, the advantage of vaccines is that they usually provide long-term protection.

Both Regeneron and Eli Lilly products are delivered by intravenous injection, after which the patient needs to be monitored by a healthcare professional. Because they provide immediate protectionThe impact on treating or protecting high-risk populations is immeasurable.

These drugs may treat infected patients or prevent the infection of essential medical and public health professionals at the forefront of this pandemic. Monoclonal antibodies may also help elderly people, toddlers, and people with immunodeficiency who may be vaccine-ineffective or dangerous.What is a monoclonal antibody? Why do you need them and the COVID-19 vaccine?

Rodney E. Rodney, Professor of Clinical Laboratory Science, Texas State University

This article has been republished from Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Please read the original article.

What is a monoclonal antibody? Why do you need them and the COVID-19 vaccine?

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